The fundamentals: MPP and data distribution

8 minute read

One can say that Presto is a MPP (Massively Parallel Processing) kind of application. Well, I have never seen a data warehouse which did not follow this approach. Teradata, Netezza, Vertica and even Hive and many many more, all of these belong to this class of software. It is not only typical for data warehouses, but also for any distributed application which is processing vast amount of data, doing non-trivial and very costly computation on it.

MPP main properties

So what does it mean in practice that a particular application is a MPP one? It means that an application in order to return a result for given task is using many (tens, hundreds or even thousands) processors. To achieve that, the application is distributed on several computers (typically called nodes). When a task is scheduled, either by requesting a SQL query or in any other form, then all the processors on all the nodes are working collectively to compute the results.

Let’s take a look at two (in my opinion) the most interesting properties of MPP application, at least in regards to the rest of this post.

  • There are two levels of parallelism. Task, or work, has to be divided between several computational nodes and then on each such node it has to be once again divided between processors (threads). This could be done in described two stage manner or in a way where each processor is treated as an independent computational unit, then the application divides the task in a single leap between a vast number of workers (processors), skipping one level (node level) of parallelism. Things are getting more complicated if you consider using GPU cards (see general purpose programming on GPU) then you might have even three level of parallelism, but this just a side note.

  • In order to utilize the cluster resources, the task has to be splittable in some way. The best situation is when given work can be decomposed to smaller independent tasks. The best example is matrix multiplication, where each cell of result matrix can be computed independently. Such decomposition is not always possible. Even more, it is a very rare case. The next desired decomposition, and much more common, is DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph). Where in order to compute a given part of work, some previous (dependent) intermediate results of other part are need to be computed first. This kind of approach is usually called streaming. Data is streamed through the operators (workers). Once the operator has all the required input data, it can start its work.

There many more MPP properties, but in this article I would like to focus on these two only. Hopefully, other properties will find a place on this blog in separate posts.

Presto query plan

Ok, let’s go back and take a look how Presto adapted this properties. When Presto receives a query, then it generates a query plan out of it. Plan is structured in a form of a tree which is known to be a DAG. Each node in this tree represents some part of work which needs to be performed in order to compute the results requested in the query. Typically, leafs represents some table scans and root is a place where final results will be collected. Simply, executing work related to each plan node independently would satisfy above MPP property. However this is not an optimal solution. Data transfer and buffering between plan nodes does not come for free. It costs CPU time, memory and network transfer. What Presto does is it is grouping nodes together into something called plan fragments. And then it executes such plan fragments independently. For example when you have filter operation on top of table scan operation, then these two operations for sure will be grouped into a single plan fragment as the result of both is expected to be much less than sum of table scan and filter together. I do not want to go into the details of plan tree and plan fragments as this topic deserves a separate blog post. I wanted just to give you a notion how Presto divides its work, it will be needed to explain how Presto then distributes work execution across the cluster.

In order to see what plan was generated for your query you may want to run EXPLAIN command:

presto:tiny> EXPLAIN select * from nation where nationkey > 3;

Then to see how such plan was grouped in plan fragments you can use EXPLAIN (TYPE DISTRIBUTED):

presto:tiny> EXPLAIN (TYPE DISTRIBUTED) select * from nation where nationkey > 3;

Data distribution

Once plan fragments are generated, they are then spread across the cluster. Then each worker translates plan fragment into a chain of operators which will perform actual query execution. The exact details of this are not important here, just remember that each of the node is able to perform a work related to each plan fragment now.

There is also one very crucial thing here. All these plan fragments have to be connected to each other. So every fragment knows where to put its results. This is called data distribution and it consists of a list of nodes to which result data will be sent and the way how that data will be distributed. Generally there three main ways how it is achieved:

  • redistributed - BROADCAST - all the data is sent to all the nodes

  • repartition - HASH - data is partitioned (on calculated hash value) and then sent to nodes associated with given hash values

  • spread - ROUND ROBIN - data is distributed across nodes with a round robin function

There are several variants, but the three above are the most important. For example, you may often spot SINGLE distribution, it is simply just a variant of redistributed with a single output node.

What about leaf nodes? Nobody is going to write to them so how processing is distributed among them? Leaf nodes are called source nodes. It is a connector’s responsibility to tell how data for particular table can be read. It consists of an instruction of where and how data is stored and divided as well as if it is accessible remotely or from which nodes directly. This information is returned from connector in a form of collection of splits. Single split collects all above info about a single data chunk. For example hive data is typically stored on HDFS. Table data is divided into several files. Each file is divided into blocks. Block typically is replicated on several nodes (very often on 3 nodes), that means that block data can be accessed directly from disk on these nodes or remotely from other nodes. If the connector returns one split per HDFS block, then for each such block Presto schedules execution of leaf (source) plan fragment for data within this block.


To check how data and so processing is distributed between plan fragments for your query, once again you can use EXPLAIN (TYPE DISTRIBUTED:

presto:tiny> EXPLAIN (TYPE DISTRIBUTED) SELECT nationkey 
             FROM nation n, region r WHERE n.regionkey = r.regionkey;

                            Query Plan
 Fragment 0 [SINGLE]                                                                                                                  
     - Output[nationkey] ...
         - RemoteSource[1] ...
 Fragment 1 [HASH]                                                                                                                    
    Output partitioning: SINGLE []
         - InnerJoin ...
                 - RemoteSource[2] ...
                 - RemoteSource[3] ...
 Fragment 2 [SOURCE]                                                                                                                  
    Output partitioning: HASH [regionkey][$hashvalue_10]  
         - TableScan[tpch:tpch:nation:sf0.01 ...
 Fragment 3 [SOURCE]
    ...All Presto needs to do now is to stream data through this plan fragments.
    Output partitioning: HASH [regionkey_0][$hashvalue_13]  
         - TableScan[tpch:tpch:region:sf0.01 ...

In the example above there are 4 fragments. Fragments 2 and 3 are source fragments and fragment 1 is HASH which means data has to be repartitioned before it gets to this fragment. So as you can see output data from fragments 2 and 3 is partitioned on hash calculated on regionkey column and then sent to fragment 1, so that data matching to the same hash value goes to the same worker. Then fragment 1 has output partitioning SINGLE that means all the data produced by all the nodes for this fragment will be sent to the same single node. Query result will be then accessible to be downloaded from that node. Please notice that output partitioning matches the fragment partitioning to which data is going to be sent. Also please notice that plan fragment knows from other plan fragments it is going to read the data, this is shown with RemoteSource on the plan.

Generally using the EXPLAIN command should be your routine. Every time you want to know what is happening you should use it. There is much more information which you can read out of it. Hopefully, I will go into details of it in separate post. As for now, you may also want to check vanilla Facebook and Teradata documentation about the EXPLAIN command.

Thread level parallelism

So far we covered how query is divided into small parts of work which can be executed independently and how data is streamed (distributed) through the cluster nodes. What about second level of parallelism? How execution is split across different processors on single machine? First of all, execution for different plan fragments or for different data splits is happening independently. Depending on how many given node has CPUs, it may execute different number of such plan fragments at a time. We could stop here, as this could be enough to satisfy MPP properties. However there are also one more things which can happen at this level in Presto. For example, some query parts are very compute-bound 1. Then in such places in the plan fragments you can spot LocalExchange. Its responsibility is to repartition data related to a single split once again, so work which was originally scheduled for a single thread now can be executed by many of them.


We went through MPP properties about work and data partitioning. These two things are required in order to saturate (use efficiently) cluster resources and this is expected when you want your query to be executed fast. This is a very broad topic, I just wanted to skim through it, so you have a notion what is happening and you are not overwhelmed by the details. Once this topic got covered, I would like to go into the details and one by one explain how it works. A single post per single detail, but for today that is all. Thank you for reaching so far! See you next time.

  1. Execution can be compute, disk, network or memory bound. This means that execution performance is directly limited by the performance of underlying resource: CPU, disk, network or memory. See wiki about CPU-bound, I/O bound and memory bound


Data distribution Once plan fragments are generated, they are then spread across the cluster (in form of operators).

hi, Grzegorz, as far as I know, the presto worker can just get the logical plan. After get the logical plan, the worker then translate the logical plan to physical plan, and the physical plan consist of the operators. Thus, I does not get the point about what you said as “fragments are sent across the cluster in form of operators”

wish to get your reply,thanks very much!


Thank you are right. Plan fragments are sent to workers, and then each of the workers translates that chain of operators. Operators are not serializable. I have just updated the post.

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